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Crystal L. Hoyt

Crystal L. Hoyt

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Crystal L. Hoyt, associate professor of leadership studies at the Jepson School of Leadership Studies at the University of Richmond, completed her doctorate in social psychology at the University of California at Santa Barbara. As a social psychologist, she brings a psychological perspective to the field of leadership studies. Her research and curricular interests include social behavior, leadership and group dynamics, research methodology in the social sciences, examining the effects of stereotypes and discrimination on women and minority leaders, leader perception, and the role of confidence in shaping group leadership.

Primary Interests:

  • Causal Attribution
  • Gender Psychology
  • Group Processes
  • Intergroup Relations
  • Internet and Virtual Psychology
  • Interpersonal Processes
  • Prejudice and Stereotyping


Journal Articles:

  • Burnette, J., Pollack, J. & Hoyt, C. (2010). Individual differences in implicit theories of leadership ability and self-efficacy: Predicting responses to stereotype threat. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3, 46-56.
  • Hoyt, C., & Blascovich, J. (2010). The role of self-efficacy and stereotype activation on cardiovascular, behavioral and self-report responses in the leadership domain. Leadership Quarterly, 21, 89-103.
  • Hoyt, C., Johnson, S., Murphy, S., & Skinnell, K. (2010). The impact of blatant stereotype activation and group sex-composition on female leaders. Leadership Quarterly, 21, 716-732.
  • Hoyt, C. L. (in press). Employment bias: The role of ideology, gender, and caregiving. In press at the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.
  • Hoyt, C. L. (2010). Women, men, and leadership: Exploring the gender gap at the top. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 484-498.
  • Hoyt, C. L. (2005). The role of leadership efficacy and stereotype activation in women’s identification with leadership. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 11(4), 2-14.
  • Hoyt, C. L., Aguilar, L., Kaiser, C., Blascovich, J., & Lee, K. (2007). The self-protective and undermining effects of attributional ambiguity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 884-893.
  • Hoyt, C. L., & Blascovich, J. (2007). Leadership efficacy and women leaders’ responses to stereotype activation. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 10, 595-616.
  • Hoyt, C. L., Murphy, S., Halverson, S., & Watson C. (2003). Group leadership: Efficacy and effectiveness. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 7, 259-274.
  • Hoyt, C. L. & Price, T., & Emrick, A. (2010). Leadership and the more-important-than-average effect: Overestimation of group goals and the justification of unethical behavior. Leadership, 6(4), 391-407.
  • Hoyt, C. L., Simon, S., & Innella, A. (in press). Taking a turn toward the masculine: The impact of mortality salience on implicit leadership theories. Basic and Applied Social Psychology.
  • Hoyt, C. L., Simon, S., & Reid, L. (2009). Choosing the best (wo)man for the job: The effects of mortality salience, sex, and gender stereotypes on leader evaluations. Leadership Quarterly, 20, 233-246.
  • Hoyt, C., Murphy, S., Halverson, S., & Watson C. (2003). Group leadership: Efficacy and effectiveness. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 7, 259-274.
  • Hoyt, C. & Simon, S. (2011). Female leader role models: Injurious or inspiring? Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35, 143-157.
  • Simon, S., & Hoyt, C. (2008). Understanding the gender gap in support for a woman for president. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy (ASAP), 8, 157-181.

Other Publications:

  • Goethals, G. R., & Hoyt, C. L. (forthcoming). What makes leadership necessary, possible, and effective: The psychological dimensions. To appear in R. Riggio & M. Harvey (Eds.) Leadership Studies: The Dialogue of Disciplines. Edward Elgar.
  • Hoyt, C. L. & Blascovich, J. (2003). Transformational and transactional leadership in virtual and physical environments. Small Group Research, 34, 678-715.
  • Hoyt, C. L., & Chemers, M. M. (2008). Social stigma and leadership: A long climb up a slippery ladder. In C. L. Hoyt, G. R. Goethals, & D.R. Forsyth (Eds.), Leadership at the crossroads: Leadership and psychology (Vol.1, pp. 165-180). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Courses Taught:

  • Diversity and Leadership
  • Group Dynamics
  • Psychology and Leadership
  • Research Methods
  • The Social Psychology of Pluralism
  • Women and Leadership

Crystal L. Hoyt
Jepson School of Leadership Studies
University of Richmond
Richmond, Virginia 23173
United States of America

  • Phone: (804) 287-6825
  • Fax: (804) 287-6062

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